How does pressure affect retrieval practice?
Repeated testing improves later retention, a phenomenon called the Testing Effect (Karpicke & Roediger, 2008; Schacter & Szpunar, 2013). Therefore, it is often recommended that teachers use frequent quizzing/testing. However, there is concern that frequent quizzing/testing may lead to anxiety. Previous studies have found that anxiety can negatively affect performance (Ashkraft & Kirk, 2001). Furthermore, little is known about how pressure affects students’ ability to monitor their learning. This experiment examines how pressure affects the Testing Effect as well as students’ metacognition.