Timothy Parks and Althea Bauernschmidt, Ph.D. to present at EPA

Effects of Pressure on Retrieval Practice: Using Leaderboards to Induce Pressure

Retrieval practice is a powerful way to improve memory. However, little is known about the effects of pressure on retrieval practice and long-term retention. In this experiment subjects were placed on a leaderboard after recall to induce pressure during retrieval practice. Their anxiety was measured after retrieval and their long-term retention was measured via a final recall test two days later. Results showed that pressure did not negatively affect memory.

Audrey Mooradian and Althea Bauernschmidt, Ph.D. to present at EPA

How does pressure affect retrieval practice?

Repeated testing improves later retention, a phenomenon called the Testing Effect (Karpicke & Roediger, 2008; Schacter & Szpunar, 2013). Therefore, it is often recommended that teachers use frequent quizzing/testing. However, there is concern that frequent quizzing/testing may lead to anxiety. Previous studies have found that anxiety can negatively affect performance (Ashkraft & Kirk, 2001). Furthermore, little is known about how pressure affects students’ ability to monitor their learning. This experiment examines how pressure affects the Testing Effect as well as students’ metacognition.

Monica Yalamanchili and Stephanie Vogel to present at EPA

Academic Entitlement (AE) has been found to be moderately correlated with narcissism.  Mixed results indicate a generally negative correlation between narcissism and forgiveness.  The current study investigated the relationship between AE and forgiveness.  Three types of forgiveness were measured: others, situation, and self.  Hypotheses predicted negative correlations between AE and forgiveness of others and situation and a positive correlation for forgiveness of self.  Significant negative correlations were found between AE and forgiveness of others and forgiveness of situation.  These results partially support those of Strelan (2007) and intuitively make sense.  Those who are high in entitlement, and therefore theoretically lower in the desire to maintain goodwill in social relationships, will be less likely to forgive others of their transgressions.  They would simply not see the need to forgive others since their focus is more on what they achieve and obtain for themselves rather than on maintaining social contacts.  

Gregory Byrne, Kathryn Winterburn, and Robin Valeri to Present at EPA

College Students’ Attitudes toward Tattooed Models Representing their University

We examined how college students’ (n = 53 ) attitudes regarding a model’s ability to serve as a representative for their university were impacted by the presence of a tattoo. Participants viewed photos of 8 students, which include the target, a female college student, shown either with or without a tattoo, and asked to rate each photo on several dimensions.  The target without the tattoo was rated as a significantly more desirable representative of the university. 

Cassie Fearing, Brielle Cornellius, and Amy Roemer, and Robin Valeri to Present at EPA

Promotion of Edible Insect Eating through Norm Manipulation and Modeling

The present study examined the impact of norms (injunctive vs. descriptive) and model (present vs. absent) on college students (n = 52) willingness to try cookie pieces made with insect flour and attitudes toward eating insects. College students in the injunctive norm model present condition ate significantly more cookie pieces than participants in any of the other groups.  Students in the injunctive (vs. descriptive) norm condition expressed significantly more positive attitudes toward eating insects.

Kayla N. Cuifolo, Quentin W. King-Shepard, and Gregory J. Privitera, Ph.D. to present at EPA

Wait, bring it back! Short- and longer-term effects of using foods and food images to enhance positive mood.

The hypothesis that eating a small portion of food will sustain a positive mood increase after viewing foods/food images was tested. Mood was measured at baseline, 5-min, and 10-min while participants viewed a food or an image of a food. Results showed positive mood change in all groups at 5-min. For groups who viewed an actual food, only when participants were allowed to eat a small portion at 5-min did mood remain positive at 10-min.  

Elizabeth K. Dickinson and Gregory J. Privitera, Ph.D. to Present at EPA

Self-Control Varies by Eating Attitudes, Sex, and Food type Among Division I Collegiate Athletes

This study tested how disordered eating attitudes and sex of collegiate athletes are related to “self control” of food choice. 102 athletes completed a delay to gratification (DTG) task by choosing between one small immediate reward and one successively larger delayed reward with indifference points calculated. Results showed that female athletes had greater self-control than male athletes for high-calorie and sweet-tasting foods; for males, those with higher disordered eating attitudes had greater self-control.

Brittany A. Windus, Hannah K. McGrath, and Gregory J. Privitera, Ph.D. to Present at EPA

Delay Discounting as an Overlapping Cognitive Mechanism of Depression and Obesity

This study tested the extent to which “self-control,” measured using a delay to gratification (DTG) task is co-related to BMI and Depression diagnostic thresholds. Participants completed a DTG task by choosing between one small immediate reward and one successively larger delayed reward with indifference points calculated; BMI, HAMD, and sex were also recorded. Results suggest that reduced cognitive affective self-control for impulsive food choices may be a shared cognitive mechanism for depression and obesity.